22.  The 4 Boundless States (or the 4 Sublime Abodes,  the 4 Immeasurable States of Mind) are: (1) limitless loving-kindness toward all beings; (2) limitless  compassion toward those who are suffering; (3) limitless joy over the salvation of others from suffering; and  (4) limitless equanimity toward friend and foe. The Buddha said, “One whose mind is full of Loving-kindness, Compassion, Altruistic Joy, and Equanimity is free from hate and ill-will.”

23.  The 4 Cankers are:  (1) the canker of sense-desire, (2) the canker of (desiring eternal) existence, (3) the canker of (wrong) views, and (4) the canker of ignorance.  The Buddha said, “One whose cankers are destroyed, or one who is canker-free is a Holy One.  He has reached the highest state of peace and enlightenment.’

24.  The 4 ‘Elements of the Effort for Purity’ are:  (1) Effort for Purity of Morality, (2) Effort for Purity of Mind, (3) Effort for Purity of View, and (4) Effort for Purity of Deliverance.

25.  The 4 Foundations (or Applications) of Mindfulness.  They are mindfulness on the body, feelings, thoughts and phenomena, namely:  (1) to contemplate that the body is impure; (2) to contemplate that the feelings are the origin of suffering; (3) to contemplate that the thoughts are impermanent, always arising then extinguishing; and (4) to contemplate that all phenomena have no substantial existence.

26.  The 4 Great Debts  are: (1) the debt to the 3 Gems (the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha), (2) the debt to our parents and teachers, (3) the debt to our spiritual friends, and finally, (4) the debt that we owe to all sentient beings.

27.  The 4 Kinds of Analytical Knowledge are:  (1) Analytical Knowledge of the True Meaning, (2) Analytical Knowledge of the Law (the Dharma), (3) Analytical Knowledge of the Language, and (4) Analytical Knowledge of Ready Wit.

28.  The 4 Kinds of Clinging are:  (1) Sensuous Clinging, (2) Clinging to  (wrong) Views, (3) Clinging to mere Rules and Ritual, and (4) Clinging to the Personality-belief (or Attachment to the Ego-belief).

29.  The 4 Kinds of Nutriments are material and mental:  (1) material food, (2) (sensoria and mental) impression, (3) mental volition, and (4) consciousness.

30.  The 4 Mental Groups (or 4 Immaterial Group of Existence) are:  feeling, perception, mental formations, and consciousness.

31.  The 4 Modes of Progress to Deliverance are:  (1) painful progress with slow comprehension, (2) painful progress with quick comprehension, (3) pleasant progress with slow comprehension, and (4) pleasant progress with quick comprehension.

32.  The 4 Noble Truths are the basis of the Buddhist teaching.  The Four Noble Truths are:  (1) the truth of suffering, (2) the truth of the origin of suffering, (3) the truth of the cessation of suffering, and (4) the truth of the Noble  8-fold Path that leads to the cessation of suffering.

Shakyamuni Buddha  was a man who had complete understanding of life and its problems.  He realized that suffering was a characteristic of all living beings and he decided to give his teaching of loving-kindness and compassion to the world.  He expounded his discovery of the Four Noble Truths as his first teaching upon his full enlightenment.

33.  The 4 Noble Usages are:  (1) contentedness (of the monk) with any robe, (2) contentedness with any almsfood, (3) contentedness with any dwelling, and (4) delight  in meditation and detachment.

34.  The 4 Physical Elements (or 4 Constituents) are:  Earth (solid), Water (liquid), Fire (Heat), and Wind (motion).

35.  The 4 Right Efforts, which form the 6th stage of the 8-fold Path, are: (1) the effort to avoid unwholesome states, such as evil thoughts, etc.; (2) to overcome unwholesome states; (3) to develop wholesome states, such as the 7 Factors (or Elements) of Enlightenment; and (4) to maintain the wholesome states. (See:  the 7 Factors of Enlightenment)

36.  The 4 Roads to Mental Power are:  (1) Concentration of Intention, (2) Concentration of Energy (Determination), (3) Concentration of Consciousness, and (4) Concentration of Investigation.

37.  The 4 Virtues are: Eternity, True Happiness, True Nature, and  Purity.

38.  The 4 Ways of Showing Favor are:  liberality, kindly speech, beneficial action, and impartiality.

39.  The 4 Wrong Paths are: the path of greed, of hatred, of delusion, and of cowardice.

Trusting yourself, loving yourself, do not feel bad about who you are.  When facing difficulty and uncertainty, be calm,  be mindful, and be fearless.

40.  The 5 Blessings are said to be faith, morality, learning, liberality, and wisdom.

41.  The 5 Courses of Existence are: Hell, Animal Kingdom, Ghost-realm, Human World, and Heavenly World.

42.  The 5 Faculties (or 5 Groups of Powers) are:  (2) faith on the right path; (2) determination, deligence on the right Dharmas; (3) mindfulness, remembering the right Dharmas without forgetting; (4) concentration, the mind is stable and without distraction; and (5) wisdom, to contemplate and see the nature of all Dharmas.

43.   The 5 Desires are the desires connected with the five senses — what we see, hear, smell, taste or touch.

44.  The 5 Elements of Effort are:  faith, health, sincerity, energy and wisdom.

45.  The 5 Feelings are:  bodily pleasant feeling, bodily pain, gladness, sadness and indifference.

46.  The 5 Kinds of Eyes are:  (1) the physical eye, (2) the divine eye, (3) the eye of wisdom, (4) the eye of a Buddha, and (5) the eye of all-round knowledge.

47.   The 5 Kinds of Overcoming are:  (1) Overcoming by Repression, i.e. pushing back of adverse things;  (2) Overcoming by Opposite, i.e. by opposing things that are to be overcome; (3) Overcoming by Destruction, i.e. evil things cannot continue any longer;  (4) Overcoming by Tranquilization; and (5) Overcoming by Escape, i.e. Extinction and Nirvana.

48.  The 5 Magical Powers are:  (1) the Power of Determination, (2) the Power of Transformation, (3) the Power of Spiritual Creation, (4) the Power of Penetrating Knowledge, and (5) the Power of Penetrating Concentration.

49.  Th 5 Meditations are:  (1) meditation on impurities of the body; (2) meditation on compassion; (3) meditation on the 12  factors of conditional existence;  (4) meditation on the auspicious marks of the Buddha; and (5) meditation on counting the breath.  (See:  The 12 Factors of Dependent Origination.)

50.  The 5 Mental Hindrances are:  (1) Sensuous Desire, (2) Ill-will, (3) Sloth and Torpor, (4) Restlessness and Scruples, and (5) Sceptical Doubt, i.e. no confidence in the good.  The Buddha said, “These 5 mental hindrances are obstacles to the mind and blind our mental vision.”

51.  The 5 Mental Powers are: (1) faith overcomes false views; (2) energy (determination) overcomes laziness; (3) mindfulness overcomes forgetfulness; (4) concentration overcomes distraction; and (5) wisdom overcomes ignorance.

52.  The 5 Methods of Overcoming “Unwholesome Thoughts” are:  (1) changing the objects, (2) thinking of the evil results, (3) paying no attention, (4) analyzing, and (5) suppressing.

53.  The 5 Mindfulness Trainings (or the 5 Precepts,  the 5 Moral Rules) are the basic precepts undertaken by all Buddhists.  They are: (1) do not kill any living being, (2) do not steal, (3) do not engage in sexual misconduct, (4) do not lie, and (5) do not take intoxicants.

54.  The 5 Skandhas (or  5 Aggregates of Attachments, 5 Groups of Existence) are:  corporeality (form), feeling (sensation), perception, mental-formation and consciousness.  They are the components of an intelligent being, especially a human being.

The 5 skandhas constitue the entirety of what is generally known as “personality.”  The characteristics of the 5 skandhas are birth, old age, death, duration and change.  They are regarded as essence, impermanent, empty and suffering-ridden.  Mental formations are identified as all positive, negative and changeable conditions within the psyche.  The best known reference of the 5 skandhas is found in the “Heart Sutra.”

(Spring Liao, 05/24/2011)